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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549


 FORM 10-Q

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 001-35877
HASI-logo-RGB (002).jpg

HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE CAPITAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


Maryland 46-1347456
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
One Park Place Suite 200
 21401
Annapolis,Maryland
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)
(410) 571-9860
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
N/A
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)





Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per shareHASINew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company 
   Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock as of the latest practicable date: 111,295,277 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding as of October 30, 2023 (which includes 127,790 shares of unvested restricted common stock).



FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
We make forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (“Form 10-Q”) within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) that are subject to risks and uncertainties. For these statements, we claim the protections of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in such Sections. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans and objectives. When we use the words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “may” or similar expressions, we intend to identify forward-looking statements. However, the absence of these words or similar expressions does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. All statements that address operating performance, events or developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future are forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. Investors are cautioned against placing undue reliance on such statements. Actual results may differ materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. Accordingly, any such statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to, and are accompanied by, important factors included in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, as amended by Amendment No. 1 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 (collectively, our “2022 Form 10-K”) (in addition to any assumptions and other factors referred to specifically in connection with such forward-looking statements) that could have a significant impact on our operations and financial results, and could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained or implied in forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf in this Form 10-Q, in presentations, on our websites, in response to questions or otherwise.
Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which such statement is made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances, including, but not limited to, unanticipated events, after the date on which such statement is made, unless otherwise required by law. New factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for management to predict all of such factors, nor can it assess the impact of each such factor on the business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained or implied in any forward-looking statement.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 


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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements

HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE CAPITAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE DATA)
(UNAUDITED)
September 30, 2023 (unaudited)December 31, 2022
Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$155,500 $155,714 
Equity method investments2,563,948 1,869,712 
Commercial receivables, net of allowance of $51 million and $41 million, respectively
2,705,976 1,887,483 
Government receivables93,364 102,511 
Receivables held-for-sale16,660 85,254 
Real estate111,249 353,000 
Investments9,370 10,200 
Securitization assets, net of allowance of $3 million and $0, respectively
182,824 177,032 
Other assets69,253 119,242 
Total Assets$5,908,144 $4,760,148 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Liabilities:
Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other$150,584 $120,114 
Credit facilities486,724 50,698 
Commercial paper notes49,974 192 
Term loans payable567,244 379,742 
Non-recourse debt (secured by assets of $245 million and $632 million, respectively)
167,622 432,756 
Senior unsecured notes1,782,197 1,767,647 
Convertible notes603,905 344,253 
Total Liabilities3,808,250 3,095,402 
Stockholders’ Equity:
Preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share, 50,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding
  
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share, 450,000,000 shares authorized, 111,167,157 and 90,837,008 shares issued and outstanding, respectively
1,112 908 
Additional paid-in capital2,353,453 1,924,200 
Accumulated deficit(348,929)(285,474)
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)47,264 (10,397)
Non-controlling interest46,994 35,509 
Total Stockholders’ Equity2,099,894 1,664,746 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity$5,908,144 $4,760,148 

See accompanying notes.
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HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE CAPITAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE DATA)
(UNAUDITED)
 For the Three Months Ended September 30,For the Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2023202220232022
Revenue
Interest income$54,295 $34,303 $145,624 $97,904 
Rental income6,039 6,609 19,013 19,716 
Gain on sale of assets22,405 14,490 52,915 51,252 
Securitization asset income5,620 4,403 13,381 9,943 
Other income1,492 345 2,353 2,614 
Total revenue89,851 60,150 233,286 181,429 
Expenses
Interest expense43,295 29,556 120,413 85,035 
Provision (benefit) for loss on receivables and securitization assets9,792 (2,463)12,481 6,222 
Compensation and benefits16,296 12,933 48,527 50,108 
General and administrative6,708 8,150 24,826 22,696 
Total expenses76,091 48,176 206,247 164,061 
Income before equity method investments13,760 11,974 27,039 17,368 
Income (loss) from equity method investments2,759 30,552 27,429 58,533 
Income (loss) before income taxes16,519 42,526 54,468 75,901 
Income tax (expense) benefit5,128 (7,585)5,299 (13,794)
Net income (loss) $21,647 $34,941 $59,767 $62,107 
Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest holders
201 407 692 676 
Net income (loss) attributable to controlling stockholders$21,446 $34,534 $59,075 $61,431 
Basic earnings (loss) per common share$0.20 $0.39 $0.59 $0.70 
Diluted earnings (loss) per common share$0.20 $0.38 $0.59 $0.69 
Weighted average common shares outstanding—basic107,715,057 87,721,756 98,665,598 86,784,895 
Weighted average common shares outstanding—diluted109,145,088 90,762,820 101,142,782 89,928,741 
See accompanying notes.
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HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE CAPITAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
(UNAUDITED)
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2023202220232022
Net income (loss)$21,647 $34,941 $59,767 $62,107 
Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities and securitization assets, net of tax benefit (provision) of $0.6 million and $0.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and $0.8 million and $2.3 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022
(20,614)(12,697)(17,046)(56,855)
Unrealized gain (loss) on interest rate swaps, net of tax benefit (provision) of $(26.4) million and $(24.9) million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and $(6.1) million and $(9.7) million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022
76,597 20,109 75,481 31,910 
Comprehensive income (loss)77,630 42,353 118,202 37,162 
Less: Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest holders
917 456 1,465 405 
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to controlling stockholders$76,713 $41,897 $116,737 $36,757 

See accompanying notes.
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HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE CAPITAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
(AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS)
(UNAUDITED)
Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated DeficitAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Non-controlling interestsTotal
SharesAmount
Balance at June 30, 2023106,769 $1,068 $2,283,257 $(326,413)$(8,002)$43,998 $1,993,908 
Net income (loss)— — — 21,446 — 201 21,647 
Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities and securitization assets— — — — (20,363)(251)(20,614)
Unrealized gain (loss) on interest rate swaps— — — — 75,629 968 76,597 
Issued shares of common stock4,394 44 107,376 — — — 107,420 
Equity-based compensation— — 688 — — 2,811 3,499 
Conversion of convertible notes— — — — —  
Issuance (repurchase) of vested equity-based compensation shares3 — (33)— — — (33)
Purchase of capped calls— — (37,835)— — — (37,835)
Dividends and distributions— — — (43,962)— (733)(44,695)
Balance at September 30, 2023111,166 $1,112 $2,353,453 $(348,929)$47,264 $46,994 $2,099,894 
Balance at June 30, 202287,490 $875 $1,811,889 $(232,590)$(22,132)$33,473 $1,591,515 
Net income (loss)— — — 34,534 — 407 34,941 
Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities and securitization assets— — — — (12,516)(181)(12,697)
Unrealized gain (loss) on interest rate swaps— — — — 19,879 230 20,109 
Issued shares of common stock1,346 13 49,020 — — — 49,033 
Equity-based compensation— — 606 — — 1,454 2,060 
Issuance (repurchase) of vested equity-based compensation shares3 — (49)— — — (49)
Dividends and distributions— — — (33,361)— (525)(33,886)
Balance at September 30, 202288,839 $888 $1,861,466 $(231,417)$(14,769)$34,858 $1,651,026 
See accompanying notes.
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Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated DeficitAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Non-controlling interestsTotal
SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202290,837 $908 $1,924,200 $(285,474)$(10,397)$35,509 $1,664,746 
Net income (loss)
— — — 59,075 — 692 59,767 
Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities and securitization assets— — — — (16,841)(205)(17,046)
Unrealized gain (loss) on interest rate swaps— — — — 74,502 979 75,481 
Issued shares of common stock20,261 203 466,190 — — — 466,393 
Equity-based compensation— — 2,363 — — 12,614 14,977 
Issuance (repurchase) of vested equity-based compensation shares68 1 (1,467)— — — (1,466)
Conversion of Convertible Notes— 2 — — — 2 
Purchase of capped calls— — (37,835)— — — (37,835)
Dividends and distributions— — — (122,530)— (2,595)(125,125)
Balance at September 30, 2023111,166 $1,112 $2,353,453 $(348,929)$47,264 $46,994 $2,099,894 
Balance at December 31, 202185,327 $853 $1,727,667 $(193,706)$9,904 $21,797 $1,566,515 
Net income (loss)
— — — 61,431 — 676 62,107 
Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities and securitization assets— — — — (56,236)(619)(56,855)
Unrealized gain (loss) on interest rate swaps— — — — 31,563 347 31,910 
Issued shares of common stock3,126 31 126,796 — — — 126,827 
Equity-based compensation— — 2,545 — — 15,449 17,994 
Issuance (repurchase) of vested equity-based compensation shares103 1 (3,213)— — — (3,212)
Conversion of convertible notes283 3 7,671 — — — 7,674 
Dividends and distributions— — — (99,142)— (2,792)(101,934)
Balance at September 30, 202288,839 $888 $1,861,466 $(231,417)$(14,769)$34,858 $1,651,026 
See accompanying notes.
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HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE CAPITAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
(UNAUDITED)
 Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20232022
Cash flows from operating activities
Net income (loss)$59,767 $62,107 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities:
Provision for loss on receivables12,481 6,222 
Depreciation and amortization2,746 2,938 
Amortization of financing costs9,347 8,666 
Equity-based compensation14,977 17,994 
Equity method investments(937)(26,340)
Non-cash gain on securitization
(34,080)(25,201)
(Gain) loss on sale of receivables and investments1,305 (218)
Changes in receivables held-for-sale40,183 5,466 
Changes in accounts payable and accrued expenses8,952 28,154 
Change in accrued interest on receivables and investments(26,087)(10,077)
Other3,686 (5,736)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities92,340 63,975 
Cash flows from investing activities
Equity method investments(583,323)(143,645)
Equity method investment distributions received20,259 99,599 
Proceeds from sales of equity method investments 1,700 
Purchases of and investments in receivables(1,016,467)(337,517)
Principal collections from receivables167,406 106,695 
Proceeds from sales of receivables7,634 5,047 
Purchases of real estate (4,550)
Purchases of investments and securitization assets(14,404)(2,329)
Proceeds from sales of investments and securitization assets 7,020 
Funding of escrow accounts (228)
Withdrawal from escrow accounts 15,156 
Other(285)(815)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(1,419,180)(253,867)
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from credit facilities777,000 100,000 
Principal payments on credit facilities(342,000)(100,000)
Proceeds from issuance of term loan200,000  
Principal payments on term loan(9,575) 
Proceeds from issuance of commercial paper notes49,775 50,000 
Principal payments on non-recourse debt
(14,714)(22,127)
Proceeds from issuance of convertible notes402,500 200,000 
Principal payments on convertible notes(143,748) 
Purchase of capped calls related to the issuance of convertible notes(37,835) 
Net proceeds of common stock issuances465,015 127,008 
Payments of dividends and distributions(115,087)(98,310)
Withholdings on employee share vesting(1,466)(3,211)
Payment of financing costs(13,302)(8,203)
Receipt of hedge collateral106,330  
Other(2,493)(8,128)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities1,320,400 237,029 
Increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash(6,440)47,137 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period175,972 251,073 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$169,532 $298,210 
Interest paid$91,988 $62,594 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash activity
Residual assets retained from securitization transactions$26,020 $25,374 
Equity method investments received upon deconsolidation of a special purpose entity144,603  
Issuance of common stock from conversion of Convertible Notes 7,674 
Deconsolidation of non-recourse debt257,746  
Deconsolidation of assets pledged for non-recourse debt374,608  
See accompanying notes.
- 6 -


HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE CAPITAL, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
September 30, 2023
 
1.The Company
Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure Capital, Inc. (the “Company”) actively partners with clients to deploy real assets that facilitate the energy transition. Our investments take many forms, including equity, joint ventures, land ownership, lending, and other financing transactions. We generate Net Investment Income from our portfolio, and fees through gain-on-sale securitization transactions, asset management and servicing, broker/dealer and other services. We also generate recurring income through our residual ownership in securitization and syndication structures.
The Company and its subsidiaries are hereafter referred to as “we,” “us” or “our.” We refer to the income producing assets that we hold on our balance sheet as our “Portfolio.” Our Portfolio includes:
equity investments in either preferred or common structures in unconsolidated entities;
commercial and government receivables;
real estate; and
investments in debt securities.
We finance our business through cash on hand, non-recourse debt, recourse debt, convertible securities, or equity and may also decide to finance such transactions through the use of off-balance sheet securitization structures.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “HASI.” We have qualified as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) and also intend to continue to operate our business in a manner that will maintain our exemption from registration as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”), as amended. We operate our business through, and serve as the sole general partner of, our operating partnership subsidiary, Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure, L.P., (the “Operating Partnership”), which was formed to acquire and directly or indirectly own our assets.
2.Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from these estimates and such differences could be material. These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the instructions to Form 10-Q and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, as filed with the SEC. In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary to present fairly our financial position, results of operations and cash flows have been included. Our results of operations for the three- and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year or any other future period. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in our annual consolidated financial statements have been condensed or omitted. Certain amounts in the prior years have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
The consolidated financial statements include our accounts and controlled subsidiaries, including the Operating Partnership. All material intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Following the guidance for non-controlling interests in Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 810, Consolidation (“ASC 810”), references in this report to our earnings per share and our net income and stockholders’ equity attributable to common stockholders do not include amounts attributable to non-controlling interests.
Consolidation
We account for our investments in entities that are considered voting interest entities or variable interest entities (“VIEs”) under ASC 810 and assess on an ongoing basis whether we should consolidate these entities. We have established various
- 7 -


special purpose entities or securitization trusts for the purpose of securitizing certain assets that are not consolidated in our financial statements as described below in Securitization of Financial Assets.
Since we have assessed that we have power over and receive the benefits from those special purpose entities that are formed for the purpose of holding our assets on our balance sheet, we have concluded we are the primary beneficiary and should consolidate these entities under the provisions of ASC 810. We also have certain subsidiaries we deem to be voting interest entities that we control through our ownership of voting interests and accordingly consolidate.
Certain of our equity method investments were determined to be interests in VIEs in which we are not the primary beneficiary, as we do not direct the significant activities of these entities, and thus we account for those investments as Equity Method Investments as discussed below. Our maximum exposure to loss through these investments is typically limited to their recorded values. However, we may provide financial commitments to these VIEs or guarantee certain of their obligations. Certain other entities in which we have equity investments have been assessed to be voting interest entities and as we exert significant influence rather than control through our ownership of voting interests, we do not consolidate them and thus account for them as equity method investments described below.
Equity Method Investments
We have made equity investments, typically in structures where we have a preferred return position. These investments are typically owned in holding companies (using limited liability companies (“LLCs”) taxed as partnerships) where we partner with either the operator of the project or other institutional investors. We share in the cash flows, income and tax attributes according to a negotiated schedule that typically does not correspond with our ownership percentages. Investors, if any, in a preferred return position typically receive a priority distribution of all or a portion of the project’s cash flows, and in some cases, tax attributes. Once the preferred return, if applicable, is achieved, the partnership “flips” and common equity investors, often the operator of the project, receive a larger portion of the cash flows, with the previously preferred investors retaining an on-going residual interest.
Our equity investments in climate solutions projects are accounted for under the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method of accounting, the carrying value of these equity method investments is determined based on amounts we invested, adjusted for the equity in earnings or losses of the investee allocated based on the LLC agreement, less distributions received. For the LLC agreements that contain preferences with regard to cash flows from operations, capital events and liquidation, we reflect our share of profits and losses by determining the difference between our claim on the investee’s reported book value at the beginning and the end of the period, adjusted for distributions received and contributions made. This claim is calculated as the amount we would receive if the investee were to liquidate all of its assets at the recorded amounts determined in accordance with GAAP and distribute the resulting cash to creditors and investors in accordance with their respective priorities. This method is referred to as the hypothetical liquidation at book value method (“HLBV”). Our exposure to loss in these investments is limited to the amount of our equity investment, as well as receivables from or guarantees made to the same investee.
Any difference between the amount of our investment and the amount of underlying equity in net assets at the time of our investment is generally amortized over the life of the assets and liabilities to which the difference relates. Cash distributions received from each equity method investment are classified as operating activities to the extent of cumulative earnings for each investment in our consolidated statements of cash flows. Our initial investment and additional cash distributions beyond the amounts that are classified as operating activities are classified as investing activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows. We typically recognize earnings one quarter in arrears for certain of these investments to allow for the receipt of financial information.
We evaluate on a quarterly basis whether the current carrying value of our investments accounted for using the equity method have an other than temporary impairment (“OTTI”). An OTTI occurs when the estimated fair value of an investment is below the carrying value and the difference is determined to not be recoverable in the near term. First, we consider both qualitative and quantitative evidence whether there may be indicators of a loss in investment value below carrying value. After considering the weight of available evidence, if it is determined that there is an indication of loss in investment value, we will perform a fair value analysis. If the resulting fair value is less than the carrying value, we will determine if this loss in value is OTTI, and we will recognize any OTTI in the income statement as an impairment. This evaluation requires significant judgment regarding, but not limited to, the severity and duration of the impairment; the ability and intent to hold the securities until recovery; financial condition, liquidity, and near-term prospects of the issuer; specific events; and other factors.
Commercial and Government Receivables
Commercial and government receivables (“receivables”) include project loans and receivables. These receivables are separately presented in our balance sheet to illustrate the differing nature of the credit risk related to these assets. Unless otherwise noted, we generally have the ability and intent to hold our receivables for the foreseeable future and accordingly we classify them as held for investment. Our ability and intent to hold certain receivables may change from time to time depending on a number of factors including economic, liquidity and capital market conditions. At inception of the arrangement, the
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carrying value of receivables held for investment represents the present value of the note, lease or other payments, net of any unearned fee income, which is recognized as income over the term of the note or lease using the effective interest method. Receivables that are held for investment are carried at amortized cost, net of any unamortized acquisition premiums or discounts and include origination and acquisition costs, as applicable. Our initial investment and principal repayments of these receivables are classified as investing activities and the interest collected is classified as operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows. Receivables that we intend to sell in the short-term are classified as held-for-sale and are carried at the lower of amortized cost or fair value on our balance sheet, which is assessed on an individual asset basis. The purchases and proceeds from receivables that we intend to sell at origination are classified as operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows. Interest collected is classified as an operating activity in our consolidated statements of cash flows. Receivables from certain projects are subordinate to preferred investors in a project who are allocated the majority of such project’s cash in the early years of the investment. According, such receivables may include the ability to defer scheduled interest payments in exchange for increasing the receivable balance. We generally accrue this paid-in-kind (“PIK”) interest when collection is expected, and cease accruing PIK interest if there is insufficient value to support the accrual or we expect that any portion of the principal or interest due is not collectible. The change in PIK in any period is included in Change in accrued interest on receivables and investments line in the operating section of our statement of cash flows.
We evaluate our receivables for an allowance as determined under ASC Topic 326 Financial Instruments- Credit Losses (“Topic 326”) and for our internally derived asset performance categories included in Note 6 to our financial statements in this Form 10-Q on at least a quarterly basis and more frequently when economic or other conditions warrant such an evaluation. When a receivable becomes 90 days or more past due, and if we otherwise do not expect the debtor to be able to service all of its debt or other obligations, we will generally consider the receivable delinquent or impaired and place the receivable on non-accrual status and cease recognizing income from that receivable until the borrower has demonstrated the ability and intent to pay contractual amounts due. If a receivable’s status significantly improves regarding the debtor’s ability to service the debt or other obligations, we will remove it from non-accrual status.
We determine our allowance based on the current expectation of credit losses over the contractual life of our receivables as required by Topic 326. We use a variety of methods in developing our allowance, including discounted cash flow analysis and probability-of-default/loss given default (“PD/LGD”) methods. In developing our estimates, we consider our historical experience with our and similar assets in addition to our view of both current conditions and what we expect to occur within a period of time for which we can develop reasonable and supportable forecasts, typically two years. For periods following the reasonable and supportable forecast period, we revert to historical information when developing assumptions used in our estimates. In developing our forecasts, we consider a number of qualitative and quantitative factors in our assessment, which may include a project’s operating results, loan-to-value ratio, any cash reserves, the ability of expected cash from operations to cover the cash flow requirements currently and into the future, key terms of the transaction, the ability of the borrower to refinance the transaction, other credit support from the sponsor or guarantor and the project’s collateral value. In addition, we consider the overall economic environment, the climate solutions sector, the effect of local, industry, and broader economic factors, such as unemployment rates and power prices, the impact of any variation in weather and the historical and anticipated trends in interest rates, defaults and loss severities for similar transactions. For those assets where we record our allowance using a discounted cash flow method, we have elected to record the change in allowance due solely to the passage of time through the provision for loss on receivables in our income statement. For assets where the obligor is a publicly rated entity, we consider the published historical performance of entities with similar ratings in developing our estimate of an allowance, making adjustments determined by management to be appropriate during the reasonable and supportable forecast period. We have made certain loan commitments that are within the scope of Topic 326. When estimating an allowance for these loan commitments we consider the probability of certain amounts to be funded and apply either a discounted cash flow or PD/LGD methodology as described above. We charge off receivables against the allowance, if any, when we determine the unpaid principal balance is uncollectible, net of recovered amounts. Any provision we record for an allowance is a non-cash reconciling item to cash from operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows.
Real Estate
Real estate consists of land or other real property and its related lease intangibles, net of accumulated amortization. Our real estate is generally leased to tenants on a triple net lease basis, whereby the tenant is responsible for all operating expenses relating to the property, generally including property taxes, insurance, maintenance, repairs and capital expenditures. Certain real estate transactions may be characterized as “failed sale-leaseback” transactions as defined under ASC Topic 842, Leases, and thus are accounted for as financing transactions similarly to our commercial receivables as described above in Government and Commercial Receivables.
For our real estate lease transactions that are classified as operating leases, the scheduled rental revenue typically varies during the lease term and thus rental income is recognized on a straight-line basis, unless there is considerable risk as to collectability, so as to produce a constant periodic rent over the term of the lease. Accrued rental income is the aggregate difference between the scheduled rents that vary during the lease term and the income recognized on a straight-line basis and is
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recorded in other assets. Expenses, if any, related to the ongoing operation of leases where we are the lessor, are charged to operations as incurred. Our initial investment is classified as investing activities and income collected for rental income is classified as operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows.
When our real estate transactions are treated as an asset acquisition with an operating lease, we typically record our real estate purchases at cost, including acquisition and closing costs, which is allocated to each tangible and intangible asset acquired on a relative fair value basis.
The fair value of the tangible assets of an acquired leased property is determined by valuing the property as if it were vacant, and the “as-if-vacant” value is then allocated to land, building and tenant improvements, if any, based on the determination of the fair values of these assets. The as-if-vacant fair value of a property is typically determined by management based on appraisals by a qualified appraiser. In determining the fair value of the identified intangibles of an acquired property, above-market and below-market in-place lease values are valued based on the present value (using an interest rate that reflects the risks associated with the leases acquired) of the difference between (i) the contractual amounts to be paid pursuant to the in-place leases, and (ii) management’s estimate of fair market lease rates for the corresponding in-place leases, measured over a period equal to the remaining term of the lease, including renewal periods reasonably certain of being exercised by the lessee.
The capitalized off-market lease values are amortized as an adjustment of rental income over the term used to value the intangible. We also record, as appropriate, an intangible asset for in-place leases. The value of the leases in place at the time of the transaction is equal to the potential income lost if the leases were not in place. The amortization of this intangible occurs over the initial term unless management believes that it is reasonably certain that the tenant would exercise the renewal option, in which case the amortization would extend through the renewal period. If a lease were to be terminated, all unamortized amounts relating to that lease would be written off.
Investments
Investments are debt securities that meet the criteria of ASC 320, Investments-Debt and Equity Securities. We have designated our debt securities as available-for-sale and carry these securities at fair value on our balance sheet. Unrealized gains and losses, to the extent not considered to be credit related, on available-for-sale debt securities are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) in equity on our balance sheet. When a security is sold, we reclassify the AOCI to earnings based on specific identification. Our initial investment and principal repayments of these investments are classified as investing activities and the interest collected is classified as operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows.
We evaluate our investments for impairment on at least a quarterly basis, and more frequently when economic or market conditions warrant such an evaluation. Our impairment assessment is a subjective process requiring the use of judgments and assumptions. Accordingly, we regularly evaluate the extent and impact of any credit deterioration associated with the financial and operating performance and value of the underlying project. We consider several qualitative and quantitative factors in our assessment. The primary factor in our assessment is the current fair value of the security, while other factors include changes in the credit rating, performance of the underlying project, key terms of the transaction, the value of any collateral and any support provided by the sponsor or guarantor.
To the extent that we have identified an impairment for a security, intend to hold the investment to maturity, and do not expect that we will be required to sell the security prior to recovery of the amortized cost basis, we will recognize only the credit component of the unrealized loss in earnings by recording an allowance against the amortized cost of the asset as required by Topic 326. We determine the credit component using the difference between the security’s amortized cost basis and the present value of its expected future cash flows, discounted using the effective interest method or its estimated collateral value. Any remaining unrealized loss due to factors other than credit is recorded in AOCI.
To the extent we hold investments with a fair value less than the amortized cost and we have made the decision to sell the security or it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security prior to recovery of its amortized cost basis, we recognize the entire portion of the impairment in earnings.
Premiums or discounts on investment securities are amortized or accreted into interest income using the effective interest method.
Securitization of Financial Assets
We have established various special purpose entities or securitization trusts for the purpose of securitizing certain financial assets. We determined that the trusts used in securitizations are VIEs, as defined in ASC 810. When we conclude that we are not the primary beneficiary of certain trusts because we do not have power over those trusts’ significant activities, we do not consolidate the trust. We typically serve as primary or master servicer of these trusts; however, as the servicer, we do not have the power to make significant decisions impacting the performance of the trusts.
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We account for transfers of financial assets to these securitization trusts as sales pursuant to ASC 860, Transfers and Servicing (“ASC 860”), when we have concluded the transferred assets have been isolated from the transferor (i.e., put presumptively beyond the reach of the transferor and its creditors, even in bankruptcy or other receivership) and we have surrendered control over the transferred assets. When we are unable to conclude that we have been sufficiently isolated from the securitized financial assets, we treat such trusts as secured borrowings, retaining the assets on our balance sheet and recording the amounts due to the trust investor as non-recourse debt.
For transfers treated as sales under ASC 860, we have received true-sale-at-law and non-consolidation legal opinions for all of our securitization trust structures to support our conclusion regarding the transferred financial assets. When we sell financial assets in securitizations, we generally retain interests in the form of servicing rights and residual assets, which we refer to as securitization assets.
Gain or loss on the sale of financial assets is calculated based on the excess of the proceeds received from the securitization (less any transaction costs) plus any retained interests obtained over the cost basis of the assets sold. For retained interests, we generally estimate fair value based on the present value of future expected cash flows using our best estimates of the key assumptions of anticipated losses, prepayment rates, and current market discount rates commensurate with the risks involved. Cash flows related to our securitizations at origination are classified as operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows.
We initially account for all separately recognized servicing assets and servicing liabilities at fair value and subsequently measure such servicing assets and liabilities using the amortization method. Servicing assets and liabilities are amortized in proportion to, and over the period of, estimated net servicing income with servicing income recognized as earned. We assess servicing assets for impairment at each reporting date. If the amortized cost of servicing assets is greater than the estimated fair value, we will recognize an impairment in net income.
We account for our other retained interests in securitized financial assets, the residual assets, similar to available-for-sale debt securities and carry them at fair value, with changes in fair value recorded in AOCI. Income related to the residual assets is recognized using the effective interest rate method and included in securitization income in our income statement. Our residual assets are evaluated for impairment on a quarterly basis under Topic 326. A residual asset is impaired if its fair value is less than its carrying value. The credit component of impairments, if any, are recognized by recording an allowance against the amortized cost of the asset. For changes in expected cash flows, we will calculate a new yield based on the current amortized cost of the residual assets and the revised expected cash flows. This yield is used prospectively to recognize our income related to these assets.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include short-term government securities, certificates of deposit and money market funds, all of which had an original maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase. These securities are carried at their purchase price, which approximates fair value.
Restricted Cash
Restricted cash includes cash and cash equivalents set aside with certain lenders primarily to support obligations outstanding as of the balance sheet dates. Restricted cash is reported as part of other assets in our consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 3 to our financial statements in this Form 10-Q for disclosure of the balances of restricted cash included in other assets.
Convertible Notes
We have issued convertible and exchangeable senior notes (together, “Convertible Notes”) that are accounted for in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options, and ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”). Under ASC 815, issuers of certain convertible or exchangeable debt instruments are generally required to separately account for the conversion or exchange option of the debt instrument as either a derivative or equity, unless it meets the scope exemption for contracts indexed to, and settled in, an issuer’s own equity. Since our conversion and exchange options are both indexed to our equity and can only be settled in our common stock, we have met the scope exemption, and therefore, we are not separately accounting for the embedded conversion or exchange options. The initial issuance and any principal repayments are classified as financing activities and interest payments are classified as operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows. If converted or exchanged, the carrying value of each Convertible Note is reclassified into stockholders’ equity.
Derivative Financial Instruments
We use derivative financial instruments, including interest rate swaps and collars, to manage, or hedge, our interest rate risk exposures associated with new debt issuances and anticipated refinancings of existing debt, to manage our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates on floating-rate debt, and to optimize the mix of our fixed and floating-rate debt. Our objective is to reduce the impact of changes in interest rates on our results of operations and cash flows. The fair values of our interest rate
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derivatives designated and qualifying as effective cash flow hedges are reflected in our consolidated balance sheets as a component of other assets (if in an unrealized asset position) or accounts payable, accrued expenses and other (if in an unrealized liability position) and in net unrealized gains and losses in AOCI as described below. The cash settlements of our interest rate swaps, if any, are classified as operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows.
The interest rate derivatives we use are intended to be designated as cash flow hedges and are considered highly effective in reducing our exposure to the interest rate risk that they are designated to hedge. This effectiveness is required in order to qualify for hedge accounting. Instruments that meet the required hedging criteria are formally designated as hedging instruments at the inception of the derivative contract. Derivatives are recorded at fair value. If a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge and meets the highly effective threshold, the change in the fair value of the derivative is recorded in AOCI, net of associated deferred income tax effects and is recognized in earnings at the same time as the hedged item. For any derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments, changes in fair value would be recognized in earnings in the period that the change occurs. We assess, both at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, whether the derivatives designated as cash flow hedges are highly effective in offsetting the changes in cash flows of the hedged items. We do not hold derivatives for trading purposes. Any collateral posted or received as credit support against derivative positions are netted against those derivatives in our balance sheets.
Interest rate derivative contracts contain a credit risk that counterparties may be unable to fulfill the terms of the agreement. We attempt to minimize that risk by evaluating the creditworthiness of our counterparties, who are limited to major banks and financial institutions, and do not anticipate nonperformance by the counterparties due to their requirement to post collateral.
We have entered into certain capped call transactions to mitigate the economic dilution that may result from the conversion or exchange of certain of our Convertible Notes. These transactions are freestanding equity-linked derivative instruments that qualify for the exemption for contracts indexed to, and settled in, an issuer’s own equity found in ASC 815, and accordingly the payment of the option premium was recorded as a reduction of Additional Paid-in-Capital within our Statement of Stockholders’ Equity.
Income Taxes
We elected and qualified to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013. We also have taxable REIT subsidiaries (“TRS”) that are taxed separately, and that will generally be subject to U.S. federal, state and local income taxes as well as taxes of foreign jurisdictions, if any. To qualify as a REIT, we must meet on an ongoing basis several organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement that we currently distribute at least 90% of our REIT’s net taxable income before dividends paid, excluding capital gains, to our stockholders. As a REIT, we are not subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on that portion of net income that is currently distributed to our owners.
We account for income taxes under ASC 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”) for our TRS using the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to the differences between the consolidated financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities from a change in tax rates is recognized in earnings in the period when the new rate is enacted. We evaluate any deferred tax assets for valuation allowances based on an assessment of available evidence including sources of taxable income, prior years taxable income, any existing taxable temporary differences and our future investment and business plans that may give rise to taxable income. We treat any tax credits we receive from our equity investments in renewable energy projects as reductions of federal income taxes of the year in which the credit arises. Any deferred tax impacts resulting from transfers of assets to or from our TRS are recorded as an adjustment to additional paid-in capital, as it is a transfer amongst entities under common control.
We apply ASC 740 with respect to how uncertain tax positions should be recognized, measured, presented, and disclosed in the financial statements. This guidance requires the accounting and disclosure of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the course of preparing our tax returns to determine whether the tax positions are “more likely than not” to be sustained by the applicable tax authority. We are required to analyze all open tax years, as defined by the statute of limitations, for all major jurisdictions, which includes U.S. federal and certain states.
Equity-Based Compensation
We have adopted equity incentive plans which provide for grants of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock units, shares of restricted common stock, phantom shares, dividend equivalent rights, long-term incentive-plan units (“LTIP Units”) and other restricted limited partnership units issued by our Operating Partnership and other equity-based awards. From time to time, we may grant equity or equity-based awards under our equity incentive plans as compensation to our senior management team, independent directors, employees, advisors, consultants and other personnel. Certain awards
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earned under each plan are based on achieving various performance targets, which are generally earned between 0% and 200% of the initial target, depending on the extent to which the performance target is met. In addition to performance targets, income or gain must be allocated by our Operating Partnership to certain LTIP Units issued by our Operating Partnership so that the capital accounts of such units are equalized with the capital accounts of other holders of OP units before parity is reached and LTIP Units can be converted to limited partnership units.
We record compensation expense for grants made in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation. We record compensation expense for unvested grants that vest solely based on service conditions on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the entire award based upon the fair market value of the grant on the date of grant. Fair market value for restricted common stock is based on our share price on the date of grant. For awards where the vesting is contingent upon achievement of certain performance targets, compensation expense is measured based on the fair market value on the grant date and is recorded over the requisite service period (which includes the performance period). Actual performance results at the end of the performance period determines the number of shares that will ultimately be awarded. We have also issued awards where the vesting is contingent upon service being provided for a defined period and certain market conditions being met. The fair value of these awards, as measured at the grant date, is recognized over the requisite service period, even if the market conditions are not met. The grant date fair value of these awards was developed by an independent appraiser using a Monte Carlo simulation. Forfeitures of unvested awards are recognized as they occur.
We have a retirement policy that provides for full vesting at retirement of any time-based awards that were granted prior to the date of retirement and permits the vesting of performance-based awards that were granted prior to the date of retirement according to the original vesting schedule of the award, subject to the achievement of the applicable performance measures and without the requirement for continued employment. Employees are eligible for the retirement policy upon meeting age and years of service criteria. We record compensation expense for unvested grants through the date in which an employee meets the retirement criteria.
Earnings Per Share
We compute earnings per share of common stock in accordance with ASC 260, Earnings Per Share. Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income attributable to controlling stockholders (after consideration of the earnings allocated to unvested grants, if applicable) by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period excluding the weighted average number of unvested grants, if applicable (“participating securities” as defined in Note 12 to our financial statements in this Form 10-Q). Diluted earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income attributable to controlling stockholders (after consideration of the earnings allocated to unvested grants, if applicable) by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period plus other potential common stock instruments if they are dilutive. Other potentially dilutive common stock instruments include our unvested restricted stock, other equity-based awards, and Convertible Notes. The restricted stock and other equity-based awards are included if they are dilutive using the treasury stock method. The treasury stock method assumes that theoretical proceeds received for future service provided is used to purchase shares of treasury stock at the average market price per share of common stock, which is deducted from the total shares of potential common stock included in the calculation. When unvested grants are dilutive, the earnings allocated to these dilutive unvested grants are not deducted from the net income attributable to controlling stockholders when calculating diluted earnings per share. The Convertible Notes are included if they are dilutive using the if-converted method, which removes interest expense related to the Convertible Notes from the net income attributable to controlling stockholders and includes the weighted average shares of potential common stock over the period issuable upon conversion or exchange of the note. No adjustment is made for shares of potential common stock that are anti-dilutive during a period. Our capped call transactions are anti-dilutive and therefore their impact will be excluded from earnings per share.
Segment Reporting
We manage our business as a single portfolio, and accordingly report all of our activities as one business segment.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting standards updates issued before November 3, 2023, and effective after September 30, 2023, are not expected to have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
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3.Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The fair value accounting guidance provides a three-level hierarchy for classifying financial instruments. The levels of inputs used to determine the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities carried on the balance sheet at fair value and for those which only disclosure of fair value is required are characterized in accordance with the fair value hierarchy established by ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements. Where inputs for a financial asset or liability fall in more than one level in the fair value hierarchy, the financial asset or liability is classified in its entirety based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement of that financial asset or liability. We use our judgment and consider factors specific to the financial assets and liabilities in determining the significance of an input to the fair value measurements. As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, only our residual assets related to our securitization trusts, our derivatives, and our investments were carried at fair value on the consolidated balance sheets on a recurring basis. The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
Level 1 — Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date.
Level 2 — Observable prices that are based on inputs not quoted on active markets but corroborated by market data.
Level 3 — Unobservable inputs are used when little or no market data is available.
The tables below illustrate the estimated fair value of our financial instruments on our balance sheet. Unless otherwise discussed below, fair values for our Level 2 and Level 3 measurements are measured using a discounted cash flow model, contractual terms and inputs which consist of base interest rates and spreads over base rates which are based upon market observation and recent comparable transactions. An increase in these inputs would result in a lower fair value and a decline would result in a higher fair value. Our senior unsecured notes and Convertible Notes are valued using a market based approach and observable prices. The receivables held-for-sale, if any, are carried at the lower of cost or fair value.
 As of September 30, 2023
 Fair ValueCarrying
Value
Level
 (in millions)
Assets
Commercial receivables$2,398 $2,706 Level 3
Government receivables85 93 Level 3
Receivables held-for-sale18 17 Level 3
Investments (1)
9 9 Level 3
Securitization residual assets (2)
183 183 Level 3
Derivative assets100 100 Level 2
Liabilities (3)
Credit facilities$487 $487 Level 3
Commercial paper notes50 50 Level 3
Term loans payable573 573 Level 3
Non-recourse debt158 170 Level 3
Senior unsecured notes1,589 1,795 Level 2
Convertible Notes:
2028 Exchangeable Senior Notes393 405 Level 2
2025 Exchangeable Senior Notes193 210 Level 2
Total Convertible Notes 586 615 
(1)The amortized cost of our investments as of September 30, 2023, was $12 million.
(2)Included in securitization assets on the consolidated balance sheet. The amortized cost of our securitization residual assets net of allowance for credit losses as of September 30, 2023 was $247 million.
(3)Fair value and carrying value exclude unamortized financing costs.
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 As of December 31, 2022
 Fair ValueCarrying
Value
Level
 (in millions)
Assets
Commercial receivables$1,859 $1,887 Level 3
Government receivables96 103 Level 3
Receivables held-for-sale92 85 Level 3
Investments (1)
10 10 Level 3
Securitization residual assets (2)
177 177 Level 3
Liabilities (3)
Credit facilities$51 $51 Level 3
Commercial paper notes  Level 3
Term loan facility384 384 Level 3
Non-recourse debt402 442 Level 3
Senior unsecured notes1,546 1,784 Level 2
Convertible Notes:
2022 Convertible Senior Notes137 143 Level 2
2023 Convertible Senior Notes185 206 Level 2
Total Convertible Notes322 349 
(1)    The amortized cost of our investments as of December 31, 2022, was $12 million.
(2)    Included in securitization assets on the consolidated balance sheet. The amortized cost of our securitization residual assets as of December 31, 2022, was $224 million.
(3)    Fair value and carrying value exclude unamortized financing costs.

Securitization residual assets
The following table reconciles the beginning and ending balances for our Level 3 securitization residual assets that are carried at fair value on a recurring basis, with changes in fair value recorded through AOCI:
 For the three months ended September 30,For the nine months ended September 30,
 2023202220232022
 (in millions)
Balance, beginning of period$204 $178 $177 $210 
Accretion of securitization residual assets4 4 11 9
Additions to securitization residual assets1 10 27 25 
Collections of securitization residual assets(3)(2)(13)(10)
Unrealized gains (losses) on securitization residual assets recorded in OCI(20)(12)(16)(56)
Provision for loss on securitization residual assets(3) (3) 
Balance, end of period$183 $178 $183 $178 

The following table illustrates our securitization residual assets in an unrealized loss position:
Estimated Fair Value
Unrealized Losses (1)
Count of Securities
Securities with a loss shorter than 12 monthsSecurities with a loss longer than 12 monthsSecurities with a loss shorter than 12 monthsSecurities with a loss longer than 12 monthsSecurities with a loss shorter than 12 monthsSecurities with a loss longer than 12 months
(in millions)
September 30, 2023$30 $143 $3 $66 18 67 
December 31, 2022118 51 27 22 66 12 
(1)    Other than the assets discussed in Note 5, loss position is due to interest rates movements and is not indicative of credit deterioration. We have the intent and ability to hold these investments until a recovery of fair value.
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In determining the fair value of our securitization residual assets, we used a market-based risk-free rate and added a range of interest rate spreads of approximately 1% to 6% based upon transactions involving similar assets as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022. The weighted average discount rates used to determine the fair value of our securitization residual assets as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 were 7.5% and 6.8%, respectively.
Non-recurring Fair Value Measurements
Our financial statements may include non-recurring fair value measurements related to acquisitions and non-monetary transactions, if any. Assets acquired in a business combination, if any, are recorded at their fair value. We may use third-party valuation firms to assist us with developing our estimates of fair value.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Commercial and government receivables, real estate leases and debt investments consist primarily of receivables from various projects, U.S. federal government-backed receivables, and investment grade state and local government receivables and do not, in our view, represent a significant concentration of credit risk given the large number of diverse offtakers and other obligors of the projects. Additionally, certain of our investments are collateralized by projects concentrated in certain geographic regions throughout the United States. These investments typically have structural credit protections to mitigate our risk exposure and, in most cases, the projects are insured for estimated physical loss, which helps to mitigate the possible risk from these concentrations.
We had cash deposits that are subject to credit risk as shown below:
September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
 (in millions)
Cash deposits$156 $156 
Restricted cash deposits (included in other assets)14 20 
Total cash deposits$170 $176 
Amount of cash deposits in excess of amounts federally insured$158 $174 
4.Non-Controlling Interest
Units of limited partnership interests in the Operating Partnership (“OP units”) that are owned by limited partners other than us are included in non-controlling interest on our consolidated balance sheets. The non-controlling interest holders are generally allocated their pro rata share of income, other comprehensive income and equity transactions.
The outstanding OP units not held by us represent approximately 1% of our outstanding OP units and are redeemable by the limited partners for cash, or at our option, for a like number of shares of our common stock. No OP units were redeemed by non-controlling interest holders during the nine months ended September 30, 2023 or September 30, 2022.
We have also granted to members of our leadership team and directors LTIP Units pursuant to our equity incentive plans. LTIP Units issued to employees are held by HASI Management HoldCo LLC. The LTIP Units are designed to qualify as profits interests in the Operating Partnership and initially will have a capital account balance of zero and, therefore, will not have full parity with OP units with respect to liquidating distributions or other rights. However, the amended and restated agreement of limited partnership of the Operating Partnership (the “OP Agreement”) provides that “book gains,” or economic appreciation, in the Operating Partnership will be allocated first to the LTIP Units until the capital account per LTIP Units is equal to the capital account per-unit of the OP units. Under the terms of the OP Agreement, the Operating Partnership will revalue its assets upon the occurrence of certain specified events, and any increase in valuation from the time of grant until such event will be allocated first to the holders of LTIP Units to equalize the capital accounts of such holders with the capital accounts of OP unit holders. Once this has occurred, the LTIP Units will achieve full parity with the OP units for all purposes, including with respect to liquidating distributions and redemption rights. In addition to these attributes, there are vesting and settlement conditions similar to our other equity-based awards as discussed in Notes 2 and 11 to our financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
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5.Securitization of Financial Assets
The following summarizes certain transactions with securitization trusts: 
 As of and for the nine months ended September 30,
 20232022
 (in millions)
Gains on securitizations$53 $51 
Cost of financial assets securitized424 454 
Proceeds from securitizations477 505 
Residual and servicing assets183 178 
Cash received from residual and servicing assets15 11 
In connection with securitization transactions, we typically retain servicing responsibilities and residual assets. We generally receive annual servicing fees that are typically up to 0.25% of the outstanding balance. We may periodically make servicer advances that are subject to credit risk. Included in securitization assets in our consolidated balance sheets are our servicing assets at amortized cost and our residual assets at fair value. Our residual assets are subordinate to investors’ interests, and their values are subject to credit, prepayment and interest rate risks on the transferred financial assets. Other than our securitization assets representing these residual interests in the trusts’ assets, the investors and the securitization trusts have no recourse to our other assets for failure of debtors to pay when due. In computing gains and losses on securitizations, we use discount rates based on a review of comparable market transactions including Level 3 unobservable inputs, which consist of base interest rates and spreads over these base rates. Depending on the nature of the transaction risks, the all-in discount rate ranged from 5% to 10% for the nine months ended September 30, 2023.
As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, our managed assets totaled $11.5 billion and $9.8 billion, respectively, of which $6.0 billion and $5.5 billion, respectively, were securitized assets held in unconsolidated securitization trusts.
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In the third quarter of 2023, we recorded an allowance for losses on securitization residual assets related to prepayable assets secured by real estate. While there is no change in the underlying credit quality of the securitized assets, we have revised our estimates of cash flows due to prepayments on certain of these assets. The following table reconciles our beginning and ending allowance for loss on securitization residual assets:
Three months ended September 30, 2023Three months ended September 30, 2022
GovernmentCommercialGovernmentCommercial
(in millions)
Beginning balance$ $ $ $ 
Provision for loss on securitization assets 3   
Ending balance$ $3 $ $ 
Nine months ended September 30, 2023Nine months ended September 30, 2022
GovernmentCommercialGovernmentCommercial
(in millions)
Beginning balance$ $ $ $ 
Provision for loss on securitization assets 3   
Ending balance$ $3 $ $ 
As of September 30, 2023, there were no material payments from debtors to the securitization trusts that were greater than 90 days past due.
Receivables from contracts for the installation of energy efficiency and other technologies are the source of cash flows of $101 million of our securitization residual assets. These technologies are installed in facilities owned by, or operated for or by, federal, state or local government entities where the ultimate obligor for the receivable is a governmental entity. The contracts may have guarantees of energy savings from third-party service providers, which typically are entities rated investment grade by an independent rating agency. The remainder of our securitization residual assets are related to contracts where the underlying cash flows are secured by an interest in real estate which are typically senior in terms of repayment to other financings.
We recognized a gain of approximately $19 million upon deconsolidation of certain land assets and the debt to which those assets were pledged, which is included in gain on sale of receivables, investments, and other assets in our income statement.
6.Our Portfolio
As of September 30, 2023, our Portfolio included approximately $5.5 billion of equity method investments, receivables, real estate and investments on our balance sheet. The equity method investments represent our non-controlling equity investments in climate solutions projects. The receivables and investments are typically collateralized by contractually committed debt obligations of government entities or private high credit quality obligors and are often supported by additional forms of credit enhancement, including security interests and supplier guaranties. The real estate is typically land and related lease intangibles for long-term leases to wind and solar projects.
In developing and evaluating performance against our credit criteria, we consider a number of qualitative and quantitative criteria which may include a project’s operating results, loan-to-value ratio, any cash reserves, the ability of expected cash from operations to cover the cash flow requirements currently and into the future, key terms of the transaction, the ability of the borrower to refinance the transaction, the financial and operating capability of the borrower, its sponsors or the obligor as well as any guarantors and the project’s collateral value. In addition, we consider the overall economic environment, the climate solutions sector, the effect of local, industry and broader economic factors, the impact of any variation in weather and the historical and anticipated trends in interest rates, defaults and loss severities for similar transactions.

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The following is an analysis of the Performance Ratings of our Portfolio as of September 30, 2023, which is assessed quarterly:
Portfolio Performance
1 (1)
2 (2)
3 (3)
Total
GovernmentCommercialCommercialCommercial
Receivable vintage (4)
(dollars in millions)
2023$ $612 $ $ $612 
2022 942   942 
2021 293   293 
2020 166   166 
2019 392   392 
2018 275   275 
Prior to 201893 77   170 
Total receivables93 2,757   2,850 
Less: Allowance for loss on receivables
 (51)  (51)
Net receivables (5)
93 2,706   2,799 
Receivables held-for-sale3 14   17 
Investments2 7   9 
Real estate 111   111 
Equity method investments (6)
 2,521 43  2,564 
Total
$98 $5,359 $43 $ $5,500 
Percent of Portfolio2 %97 %1 % %100 %

(1)This category includes our assets where based on our credit criteria and performance to date we believe that our risk of not receiving our invested capital remains low.
(2)This category includes our assets where based on our credit criteria and performance to date we believe there is a moderate level of risk to not receiving some or all of our invested capital.
(3)This category includes our assets where based on our credit criteria and performance to date, we believe there is substantial doubt regarding our ability to recover some or all of our invested capital. Loans in this category are placed on non-accrual status. Previously included in this category was $11 million of loans we had made in a new market venture where the performance was not meeting expectations. We collected this loan in full in the second quarter of 2023 and accordingly released the related allowance of $5 million.
(4)Receivable vintage refers to the period in which in which the relevant loan agreement is signed, and a given vintage may contain loan advances made in subsequent periods to the loan agreement.
(5)Total reconciles to the total of the government receivables and commercial receivables lines of the consolidated balance sheets.
(6)Some of the individual projects included in portfolios that make up our equity method investments have government off-takers. As they are part of large portfolios, they are not classified separately. 

Receivables
As of September 30, 2023, our allowance for losses on receivables was $51 million based on our expectation of credit losses over the lives of the receivables in our portfolio. During the three months ended September 30, 2023, we increased our reserve by approximately $7 million, due to new loans and loan commitments made during the period. During the three months ended September 30, 2023, we entered into a variable rate revolving credit facility with an energy services company secured by projects in development, with a maximum principal amount of $300 million and that matures in 2026. As of September 30, 2023, the principal amount of the facility was $213 million and the facility bore interest at a rate of 9.7%.
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Below is a summary of the carrying value, loan funding commitments, and allowance by type of receivable or “Portfolio Segment”, as defined by Topic 326, as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022:
September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Gross Carrying Value Loan Funding CommitmentsAllowanceGross Carrying ValueLoan Funding CommitmentsAllowance
(in millions)
Commercial (1)
2,757 464 51 1,928 256 41 
Government (2)
$93 $ $ $103 $ $ 
Total$2,850 $464 $51 $2,031 $256 $41 
(1)As of September 30, 2023, this category of assets includes $1.4 billion of mezzanine loans made on a non-recourse basis to special purpose subsidiaries of residential solar companies which hold residential solar assets where we rely on certain limited indemnities, warranties, and other obligations of the residential solar companies or their other subsidiaries.
Risk characteristics of our commercial receivables include a project’s operating risks, which include the impact of the overall economic environment, the climate solutions sector, the effect of local, industry, and broader economic factors, the impact of any variation in weather and trends in interest rates. We use assumptions related to these risks to estimate an allowance using a discounted cash flow analysis or the PD/LGD method as discussed in Note 2 to our financial statements in this Form 10-Q. All of our commercial receivables are included in Performance Rating 1 in the Portfolio Performance table above. For those assets, the credit worthiness of the obligor combined with the various structural protections of our assets cause us to believe we have a low risk we will not receive our invested capital, however we recorded a $51 million allowance on these $2.8 billion in assets as a result of lower probability assumptions utilized in our allowance methodology.
(2)As of September 30, 2023, our government receivables include $10 million of U.S. federal government transactions and $83 million of transactions where the ultimate obligors are state or local governments.
Risk characteristics of our government receivables include the energy savings or the power output of the projects and the ability of the government obligor to generate revenue for debt service, via taxation or other means. Transactions may have guarantees of energy savings or other performance support from third-party service providers, which typically are entities, directly or whose ultimate parent entity is, rated investment grade by an independent rating agency. All of our government receivables are included in Performance Rating 1 in the Portfolio Performance table above. Our allowance for government receivables is primarily calculated by using PD/LGD methods as discussed in Note 2 to our financial statements in this Form 10-Q. Our expectation of credit losses for these receivables is immaterial given the high credit-quality of the obligors.
The following table reconciles our beginning and ending allowance for loss on receivables by Portfolio Segment:
Three months ended September 30, 2023Three months ended September 30, 2022
GovernmentCommercialGovernmentCommercial
(in millions)
Beginning balance$ $44 $